The Northeast has been identified as India's 'future powerhouse' and at least 168 large hydroelectric projects with a cumulative installed capacity of 63,000 MW have been proposed in the region. Even as the central and state governments’ begin harnessing the hydropower potential, large dams have emerged as a major issue of conflict in this ecologically and geologically fragile, seismically active and culturally sensitive region. The upstream, downstream and cumulative impact of the dams’ juggernaut has been a major issue of debate in the Brahmaputra and Barak river basins. Kalpavriksh has closely tracked developments in this respect since 2001, particularly on issues related to environmental governance. The focus has been to contribute to an informed debate, and, in collaboration with local groups advocate ecological and social sensitivity in development planning.